“Complexity of Renewables” articles

In this series of technical articles, we look at a range of topics that illustrate the complexity of renewables as a concept within the ongoing energy transition. Each article – taking a few minutes to read – considers technical complexities at the system level.

As these articles are published, links to them will be included on this page.

Part 1: Complexity of Renewables

A concise but detailed overview of a range of system performance metrics we can observe and monitor during the transition and cover what we can expect as the transition moves forward. (Published January 25, 2023.)

Part 2: Control Interaction

An examination of possible control interaction phenomena and how to study them using approaches such as simulations and dynamic modeling. (Published February 15, 2023.)

Part 3: Dynamic Equivalents

Discover how we could build dynamic equivalent models to study issues such as control interaction. We look at various software platforms and the critical parameters that must be re-created. (Published March 6, 2023.)

Part 4: Fault Ride Through

Various connections (HVDC, WTG, BESS) need fault ride through (FRT) capabilities to mitigate the negative effect of faults on a network. This article gives an overview of the relevance of FRT in the modern grid. (Published March 30, 2023.)

Part 5: Reactive Power

How do we interpret the reactive power envelopes in grid codes or other standards? What complexities exist for renewable connections? And should the same standards apply to BESS when charging/discharging? (Published May 17, 2023.)

Part 6: Frequency Response

A brief look at the difference between classical synchronous generator requirements and renewables. We also cover testing, simulation, and typical open/closed loop systems. (Published June 6, 2023.)

Part 7: Power Quality

This article explains the enhanced need for power quality in renewables, looking at areas such as harmonics, flicker, and voltage step. We also look at different mitigation strategies that could be deployed. (Published July 17, 2023.)

Part 8: Transient Stability

Should renewables be seen as a special case for transient stability? We look at various studies, stability issues, and the role of Fast Frequency Response. (Published July 19, 2023.)

Part 9: Protection

A wide-ranging look covering topics such as the lack of short circuits in areas of low system strength, how BESS fits into the picture, and the lack of inertia in protection schemes. (Published August 25, 2023.)

Part 10: Quantifying risk for storage in security standards

Find out why storage assets need to be more comprehensively considered in security standards to reflect their dual role as non-synchronous generators or, when charging, as a load on the network. (Published October 18, 2023.)