Power System Protection

Safeguarding assets and maintaining grid stability

Relay protection is the backbone of any energy system, acting as a safeguard against faults and disturbances that could lead to downtime, damage, or even catastrophic failures. By swiftly detecting abnormalities and isolating affected components, relay protection minimizes interruptions to the flow of power and ensures the safety of both personnel and assets. In today’s interconnected and dynamic energy landscape, the importance of reliable relay protection cannot be overstated. From preventing blackouts to minimizing operational disruptions, relay protection is essential for maintaining grid stability, optimizing asset performance, and safeguarding investments.

Our highly specialized consultants offer extensive experience in power system protection to distribution, transmission and industrial networks, including generation connections for thermal and hydro plants, solar, Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) and both onshore and offshore wind farms.


Fault analysis using DIgSILENT or other power system modeling software


Preparation of protection key line diagrams


Preparation of technical specifications


Owner’s engineer roles for protection system design review


Protection design review


System modeling and protection grading studies


Preparation of protection policies


Tender assessment


Calculation of protection relay settings


Concept and detail design


Witnessing of factory testing


Commissioning supervision


Strategic advice on protection integration and asset management planning


Protection grid interface compliance assessment


Arc flash assessment studies

Why Us for Protection?

Experienced engineers with extensive global experience in multi-vendor power network projects at all voltage levels

Tailored protection solutions to meet the unique needs and challenges of each project

End-to-end services from consultation and design to commissioning supervision and ongoing support for optimal system performance

Knowledge of system operators’ frameworks, regional networks, and international standards and practices

Our experience

Dinorwig 400 kV Substation Replacement 

  • PSC were commissioned to undertake the production of relay settings for feeders and generator transformer circuits and busbar protection for the new GIS substation. Scope involved seeking National Grid approval of settings and loading them into their online repository.

Transmission Protection and Control Design Support

  • PSC were engaged to provide protection and control design support across voltages from 33 kV to 400 kV for a period of up to one year to cover for staff temporary absence. The work covered all aspects of protection and control for ongoing projects, connection costing, policy updates, etc across the client’s business.
  • Update of policy documents, production of scope documents for Load Management Schemes to protect the network in areas with numerous distributed generation connections, input to costing for Load Management Schemes, and attendance at site visits where required.

Elstree Substation

  • PSC were engaged to undertake protection design modifications and relay settings associated with four 275/132 kV supergrid transformers.
  • Preparation of relay settings for new relays and assessment of settings for existing relays affected by changes to instrument transformers. Approval of relay settings in accordance with TSO processes and submission into their web-based system.

Protection Schemes and Settings Review for Hydro Generation plant in Australia

  • PSC was engaged to review the existing generator and its relevant plant protection schemes to ensure the settings and performance comply with the proposed Generator Performance Standards as well as the National Electricity Rules Requirements.
  • PSC also carried out protection gap analysis by assessing internal protection standards and existing protection schemes to identify protection coverage risks as well as reliability risks.

Protection Studies and Settings Configuration for Yurika BESS Facilities

  • PSC was engaged to provide protection studies and protection settings for BESS facilities that grade with the upstream NSP protection device.

Protection System Audit for Territory Generation

  • PSC was engaged to review the existing protection schemes and settings to achieve operational plant stability. Works included a review of the protection single line diagram, fault study, protection settings and logic block diagrams.

Braintree 400 kV Substation

  • PSC were engaged to produce protection keyline diagrams as part of FEED process for two new SGT tertiary winding connected solar farms.

Siemens Relay Settings

  • PSC were engaged to prepare protection settings and carry out the first TP141 authorized check on their behalf, prior to submission to TSO for Assurance.
  • Carry out first TP141 check of settings prepared by colleagues, to ensure that data entered is correct and that the settings follow policy, prior to submission to client.
  • Assistance with updating of existing Protection and Automatic Switching Schedules and Protection Thermal Rating schedules.

East Anglia 1 ITT Technical Due Diligence

  • Review of factory and site acceptance test documentation for protection and control and SCADA systems (onshore and offshore) to see that sufficient evidence exists to establish that suitable processes were undertaken prior to putting into service and identify any shortfalls for follow-up.

Protection Grading Studies for Cotton Valley, Kings Lynn, Kemsley Paper Mill

  • PSC developed multiple system models in DIgSILENT Power Factory and delivered protection settings analysis to report any changes necessary to improve protection system performance and to provide appropriate coordination between different protection devices.

Protection Grading Review and Arc Flash Hazard Assessments for BHP Nickel West

  • PSC has considerable experience working with BHP sites’ models using DIgSILENT PowerFactory and has been developing the power system network models’ integrity, after which PSC was selected as the custodian of the models.
  • Developed a Basis of Study (BoS) document for the preparation of power system studies, protection grading review and arc flash risk assessment according to IEEE 1584-2018 to facilitate a consistent work practice that assisted with the quality of the study outcomes.
  • Provided multiple comprehensive reports with protection time grading studies, arc flash hazard assessments and mitigation strategies to address high fault arc levels.

Latest News

Unravelling the Complexities of Compliance

Unravelling the Complexities of Compliance

PSC UK’s Mikhail Lukianenko and Richard Adams outline the challenges regarding regulatory frameworks for relay protection industry. read more

Integrating Multivendor Numerical Relays: Substation Design Challenges

Integrating Multivendor Numerical Relays: Substation Design Challenges

PSC UK’s Richard Adams and Mikhail Lukianenko shed light on challenges Protection & Controls (P&C) engineers face while integrating microprocessor-based relays from various vendors. read more

The complexity of renewables, Part 9

The complexity of renewables, Part 9

In this series of short technical articles, we look at various topics that illustrate the complexity of renewables as a concept within the ongoing energy transition. Here, PSC’s Richard Adams writes about the impact of asynchronous generation on system protection. read more

Protection Engineering for the Modern Grid

Protection Engineering for the Modern Grid

As renewable generation increases, the role of protection engineering is adapting to balance integrating these new resources while maintaining reliability. read more

Contact us

Richard Adams – Principal Engineer

Richard is a Chartered Engineer and a Fellow of the IET (FIET) with over 30 years of experience in the design and application of protection relays and systems at all voltages up to 500 kV. He is an active member of CIGRE, culminating in his appointment as Secretary of Study Committee B5 (Protection and Automation) in 2018. In 2020 Richard was granted the Distinguished Member title by CIGRE. Richard is authorized to NGET TP141 for the preparation and checking of protection settings on the National Grid transmission system.

He has extensive experience in the definition of protection schemes, having prepared numerous technical specifications, key-line diagrams and schematic diagrams for protection and control schemes in various projects around the world. He has carried this through to project management, design audit, the preparation and/or review of protection relay settings, and to management and witnessing of final commissioning and handover of protection and control schemes.

Mikhail Lukianenko – Senior Consultant 

Mikhail Lukianenko is a Protection Engineer with over 15 years of experience in the field of substation protection and control systems up to 500 kV. His skills set allows him to independently perform any work related to relay protection, whether it’s short-circuit study, protection calculation, relay parameter settings configuration, creating protection design documentation, design audit, or commissioning.

During his career Mikhail worked as a protection specialist for a distribution company and a design company in Russia. He also has experience working as an Electrical Engineer on an international EPC project in Uzbekistan (220 kV Substation and two HV overhead lines).

Chin Choo – Senior Engineer

Chin is a Chartered Engineer and brings over 16 years of experience working at New Zealand’s generation and distribution utilities. Chin specializes in power system protection. She is a current member of CIGRE, representing PSC Australia for CIGRE Australia B5 (Protection & Automation). She has in-depth knowledge of protection and control schemes, having reviewed/prepared protection study reports, protection single line diagrams, relay settings including switchgear controls and schematic drawings.

Chin also has extensive knowledge of IEC 61850 Substation Network Communications protocol for exchange of information between IEDs & SCADA as well as using Generic Object-Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) messaging for switchgear interlock functions and inter-tripping.

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